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areas with substantial market share in merchandise like credit cards and personal and housing loans. ← 3. Industries are grouped by financial sector utilizing Refinitiv information. Economic sectors have been chosen based on essentially the most polluting industries using International Energy Organisation CO emissions information. ← . Tilting happens when an index or portfolio supplier makes use of data from ESG rating companies to rank the ESG scores of the companies inside their father or mother product to create an ESG counterpart. For example by tilting the portfolio towards high ESG corporations by excluding these with the ESG scores under a certain threshold. Improved transparency on the methodologies used to generate E scores and sustainable indices is important to make the E pillar match for objective. Ultimately this should include clear and publicly out there information on metrics with guidance on the measurement of supplementary evaluation. This ought to go hand in hand with higher readability on required E pillar reporting by corporations; establishing core metrics with associated metadata for measurement would be a valuable first step. Greater consistency on the excessive-degree function of the E pillar may present stakeholders and traders with a framework to assess the level of environmental and financial materiality for features of the E pillar. This would help untangle the assorted metrics and knowledge that serve disparate stakeholders which may undermine the worth of underlying metrics and data. This should also embody clear boundaries as to which areas of the E pillar are relevant to greening the financial system and which concentrate on different goals corresponding to lengthy-time period monetary worth. Sixteen sovereigns have now issued green bonds to finance green initiatives in governments’ price range exceeding USD eighty billion see Figure .eight. Amid the COVID- pandemic sovereign green bonds issuers has kept the issuance momentum in with several re-openings and some inaugural issuances including Germany and Sweden. Looking forward the governments of Denmark Italy Mexico Spain and Slovenia are contemplating issuing one. Understanding what impression variations in the composition of mother or father indices and funds and their ESG counterparts have on the environmental performance of those indices and funds is necessary. Focusing on CO emissions and

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